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Associated Topics

Modest improvement in temporomandibular disorder–related pain associated with use of hard stabilization appliances compared with use of nonoccluding appliances or no therapy

Nikolaos Pandis DDS, MS, dr. med. dent .


Systematic Review Conclusion

The use of properly adjusted hard stabilization appliances (HSAs) is preferable to the use of nonoccluding appliances (NOAs) or to no therapy in the treatment of pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).

Critical Summary Assessment

This systematic review was of moderate quality and included some studies with high risk of bias.

Evidence Quality Rating

Limited Evidence

This summary is published in the Journal of the American Dental Association and can be accessed at:

Critical Summary Publication Date:


These summaries are not intended to, and do not, express, imply, or summarize standards of care, but rather provide a concise reference for dentists to aid in understanding and applying evidence from the referenced systematic review in making clinically sound decisions as guided by their clinical judgment and by patient needs. American Dental Association © 2019